Some stones of constructions around Cusco measure several meters high and large for about few hundred tonnes…. It is impressive for those who still thinking that civilization and technics are all coming from its European origin! But the question still remains entirely; how the Inca did to achieve moving mastodons of this size and to interlock it in this perfect way?
To go through rivers, the Incas spent months to divert the natural stream course of the river, entering the riverbed halt, then installing stones on the floor and finally entering the other half. Some stones, too heavies, has been abandoned on the way. The rest of time, tree trunks served to make the stone rolling and maximize impact of the physical efforts of slaves who worked for Incas. Ramps were built to carry stones high up, up to for example Ollantaytambo fortress. Masons trimmed during several month and relayed themselves.
Nevertheless, this explications and the available information keep insufficient. Considering that the careers were at 36km from Cusco, that Inca didn’t knew the wheel technic to transport heavy objects, that at the period, vegetation was made of low and dry shrubs and no trees like the eucalyptus we have now (that make impossible the use of trunks to make the stones roll) and that the steep geography (like in Sacsayhuaman or Ollantaytambo) made the task harder, the Inca would not have enough time during the 100 years of their effective regional domination (1438 – 1533) to, firstly, develop transport technics and secondly to build all those monuments.
This is from this observation that Erich von Däniken begun. Swiss author with German language, he underpinned his theory of extraterrestrial influence in his books like Machu Picchu. Furthermore, according to Spanish chronicles of 1532, when Conquistadores came to Cusco, some sites (like Sacsayhuaman) were abandoned, indication that let think that the most impressive sites haven’t been built by the Inca but by anterior civilizations, and the Inca had simply appropriate this place; the more strategical ones.
Historians, archaeologists and other persons’ theories, like in Nazca or other places, continue to fly, to contradict, to look for explanations…Nowadays, there is no theory that satisfice entirely the whole scientific community, neither for the utilization of the sites, nor to understand how the tribe, leader of the entire region, very quickly, achieved building architectural giants like those one that are present in Cusco region.